Using Socraticqs

Teaching with Socraticqs

You use Socraticqs rather like a set of slides that you can step through in any order you want, showing or skipping whatever you want. The only difference is that you should tell the students what to click on when you want them to do something:

  • when you start a new question, tell them to click the START link on the navigation bar that is always at the bottom of any Socraticqs page.
  • if you want them to report whether peer discussion changed what they think is the right answer, tell them to click the DISCUSS link. Note that this is optional; it’s up to you based on whether you think it’s worth the time; I usually skip this.
  • when you want to present the right answer, you can tell them to click the ASSESS link to enter a self-evalation of whether their answer matched or differed from the right answer. Note that this is optional; it’s up to you based on whether you think it’s worth the time; I almost always do this, as I want to see how the students evaluate their own answers.

You can of course use Socraticqs in any way you wish. After experimenting with various procedures, I’ve settled into a fairly “minimal” question cycle:

  • introduce and explain the question; make sure they understand what’s being asked.
  • Click Socraticqs Go button to start its timer and tell the students to think about the question for one minute.
  • After about a minute I tell them to start entering whatever brief answer they’ve come up with.
  • After another minute to enter their answers, I tell them to discuss their answer with their partner whenever they’re both ready.
  • After a couple minutes for them to each present their answer to each other (I tell them one minute each), I show them the answer and explain it.
  • I then ask them to self-assess, and give them a minute or two to do that.

Note that it’s usually not practical to wait for everyone to finish every stage before proceeding to the next one. Instead I simply want to see that most of the students have entered an answer. Socraticqs is designed to allow students to continue answering one stage after you’ve moved on to another stage. The main thing is that once you assign a new question, when a student clicks the START link they’ll get your new question.

I usually take about 10 minutes per question (for the whole cycle). Clearly you must choose your questions carefully and to the point; you only get to ask a few questions per class! I prefer a two-hour class format, which gives me enough time to cover a topic and work through enough concept tests. I have tried two different approaches:

  • minimal lecture, mostly concept tests: Eric Mazur recommends that students be required to do assigned reading that prepares them for the in-class questions. This has to be enforced by frequent pop quizzes. The reading should be brief and concise, focused on introducing the definitions and concepts. (The quizzes should merely assess whether they’ve done the reading and know basic definitions, not whether they truly understand the concepts). The class time then builds understanding through conceptual questions.

    In my experience, the difficulty with this approach is that it’s too different from what students are used to. Some of them will resent the change simply because it isn’t what they expected. I also find that the extra mechanics involved (pop quizzes) waste time for little benefit.

  • balance of lecture and concept tests: lecture about half of the class time, and pose concept tests the rest of the time. You can of course still assign reading, but it becomes less critical and there’s no need for reading quizzes.

    Students seem to find this an appealing mix of what they’re used to (lecture) plus something new (concept tests). They still feel the comfort of the familiar format, and in that mood seem to welcome concept tests as “good exercise” that wakes them up and adds to their understanding. I find this approach to be a “happy medium”.

    You could either intersperse lecture and concept tests, topic by topic, or you could lecture for an hour and then have an hour of concept tests.

Coordination with Slides

In principle, you could just use Socraticqs Instructor interface to present the questions and answers to the students (i.e. project your web browser showing the Instructor interface, for the students to see). However, I prefer to show slides of the questions and answers on an external monitor (projected for the students to see), while I keep the Instructor interface on my laptop screen, not visible to the students. (My ReusableText tools generate both PDF slides and a Socraticqs question file automatically from the same question text).

Course Setup

You initialize a Socraticqs course database by giving it a list of students in CSV format. This list actually could consist of just one student, as Socraticqs allows students to register in-class by simply giving their full name and student ID number. The students file is read from CSV format, which can be exported from Excel or other programs. Only two columns (student ID number and name) are needed, with no header line, e.g.:

1082376,"Bob Smith"
2997389,"Jane Doe"

You initialize the course database by running the following command (assuming you installed socraticqs using setup.py):

socraticqs_init students.csv

Alternatively, you can run the same command directly from the socratiqs source directory (i.e. without having to run setup.py install):

python /path/to/socraticqs/coursedb.py students.csv

This will create a sqlite3 database file course.db in the current directory.

Configuring Socraticqs

The config file is cp.conf, and specifies things like the port that the web server will run on (by default, port 8000). You can change the settings if you wish.

Socraticqs Question File Format

You start a Socraticqs session by giving it a list of questions in CSV format, consisting of the following columns (again with no header line), which must be given in the following order:

  • question type
    • mc: multiple choice; the student chooses one of several answers.
    • text: text response; the student answers by typing text and / or equations.
    • image: image response; the student answers by writing and / or drawing on a piece of paper, then uploading an image of it from their laptop’s webcam or smartphone camera. Not recommended, as image files are huge (especially from modern smartphone cameras) and will slow your network to a crawl. Not feasible for even a medium sized class.
  • question title
  • question text
  • text answer / explanation
  • the number of pre-defined “common error” categories (zero or more, which must immediately follow this column).
  • zero or more text columns describing pre-defined “common error” categories; the number of such columns must of course match the previous argument. If any pre-defined error categories are provided, students will be asked on the self-evaluation screen whether they made any of these errors (in addition to asking them whether their answer matched the correct answer). (This is mainly useful for text-response questions).

For multiple choice questions, additional columns are required, in this order:

  • the index of the correct choice, in standard Python zero-based indexing (i.e. zero is the first choice; 1 is the second choice, etc.).
  • the remaining columns will be interpreted as the texts of each of the answer choices of the multiple choice question.

This format is generated automatically using my ReusableText tools, but could be generated easily using Excel or many other programs that can save CSV format.

MathJax Equation Support

If you download the MathJax package and install it (or link it) as /path/to/socraticqs/static/mathjax, Socraticqs will support the rendering of LaTeX equations in the usual MathJax way, i.e.:

this is an inline equation \(y=x^2\)

Here is an equation on its own line:

$$a^2+b^2=c^2$$

Note that this equation support works both in question text and in student response text, i.e. when a student response is displayed on a Socraticqs page, the equation will be rendered by MathJax.

Note that if you use equations in Socraticqs, you should recommend that students use Firefox , because this should use Firefox’s native MathML support, hopefully improving performance (by avoiding the need to send font data to the students’ browsers).

Starting Socraticqs

You start the Socraticqs server (in a directory containing your course.db course database) as follows (assuming you installed socraticqs using setup.py):

socraticqs myquestions.csv

Alternatively, you can run the same command directly from the socratiqs source directory (i.e. without having to run setup.py install):

python /path/to/socraticqs/web.py myquestions.csv

The Admin (Instructor) Interface

Currently, Socraticqs is configured to only allow admin access from web browsers on the same computer where the server is running. E.g. if you are using the default port setting of 8000, then you would point your web browser at

http://localhost:8000/admin

The admin interface is simple:

  • START page: shows the list of questions. Click a question to start the students on that question.
  • MONITOR page: shows the question, how many students have submitted an answer to the current question, and (if desired) their answers. Automatically updates every 15 seconds.
  • ASSESS page: shows the answer, how many students have submitted a self-evaluation, and (if desired) their self-evaluations. Automatically updates every 15 seconds.
  • SAVE: saves the latest student response data to the database. It is safe to click this as often as you like if you’re paranoid, but strictly speaking there is no need to save data until the end of class.
  • SHUTDOWN: saves data and shuts down the server. Currently you will just get a warning from your web browser that the server has gone away; we will improve this.

These options are always available by clicking on the navigation bar at the bottom of any page.

The Student Interface

Tell the students the URL of the server; on a private network this will consist of your IP address and port number, e.g.

http://192.168.0.2:8000/

For convenience, you should configure your wifi access point to always assign the same IP address to your computer (server). Then you can tell the students to just bookmark the URL the first day, so they can access it very easily thereafter.

Registration and Login

To use Socraticqs, each student must register by creating a username. They select a username, and enter their full name and student ID number.

Thereafter, they login to Socraticqs with their username and student ID number.

The Socraticqs Navigation Bar

Just as in the Instructor interface, there is a navigation bar at the bottom of every page of the student interface. It lets students navigate to several possible pages (typically, when the instructor tells them to):

  • START: displays the current question assigned by the instructor, for the student to answer.
  • DISCUSS: enables the student to report whether discussion with their partner changed their answer.
  • ASSESS: lets the student report whether their answer matched or differed from the correct solution.

Database and Reporting

Note that you must explicitly save student responses to its database file; Socraticqs does so whenever you click SAVE or SHUTDOWN. Above all, do not simply kill the server (e.g. by typing control-C) without saving data first! For maximal speed, Socraticqs keeps all data in memory and does not use database queries when processing student responses. Thus you must save the data before the Socraticqs server process halts, or you will lose the student response data from that session (responses previously stored in the database file will still be there, of course).

Socraticqs saves all student responses in an sqlite3 database file (by default course.db). Currently some rudimentary reporting methods are available. You can use Socraticqs’ report generation script to generate a report of the student responses for a specified list of questions (assuming you installed socraticqs using setup.py):

socraticqs_report myreport.rst 1,2,3,4

(This writes a report on questions 1, 2, 3, 4 from the sqlite3 database).

Alternatively, you can run the same command directly from the socratiqs source directory (i.e. without having to run setup.py install):

python /path/to/socraticqs/write_report.py myreport.rst 1,2,3,4

makes it write a report of the responses to questions 1, 2, 3, and 4 to a ReStructuredText file myreport.rst. You can use tools like Sphinx to produce a nicely formatted HTML or LaTeX document from this, etc.

You can also directly query the sqlite3 database. For example, you can see a list of all questions in the database using the sqlite3 tool (installed by default on Mac OS X):

$ sqlite3 course.db
SQLite version 3.6.12
Enter ".help" for instructions
Enter SQL statements terminated with a ";"
sqlite> select * from questions;
1|text|ortholog vs. paralog evolution|2012-07-31
2|text|repetitive elements and assembly|2012-07-31
3|text|Solexa vs. PCR?|2012-07-31
4|text|solexa sequencing limits|2012-07-31

Classroom Wi-Fi Configurations

First, note that Socraticqs does not need an Internet connection, either for the server (e.g. on the instructor’s laptop) or for the students. The only need for wi-fi is as a way for the students’ laptops and smartphones to connect to the Socraticqs server (most likely running on the instructor’s laptop).

If your classroom has robust wi-fi, then all you need to do is connect your laptop (on which you will run the Socraticqs server) to the wi-fi, note its IP address, and start Socraticqs. Then tell your students the URL to point their web browsers at (based on your IP address; see details above). At that point they should all be able to log in.

On the other hand, if your classroom lacks usable wi-fi, you have several choices:

  • use a cheap wi-fi router, either with or without plugging it into an Internet connection. For best performance, you can plug your laptop (that will run the Socraticqs server) directly into the router using an ethernet cable. You then tell the students how to connect their laptops to the wi-fi router, and the URL to point their web browser at the Socraticqs server (based on your IP address; see details above).

    This is a robust, scalable solution, and has worked flawlessly for me in the two courses where I’ve used Socraticqs (with up to 60 students).

  • if you’re running Socraticqs on a MacBook, you can choose “Create Network...” under the wi-fi menu to create an ad hoc network. You then tell the students the network name you chose, and they connect their laptops to it. You tell them the URL for the Socraticqs server (based on your IP address; see details above).

    I haven’t tested this, but presumably it might have lower performance and not be usable for larger numbers of students.

Note: I generally do not start the Socraticqs server until after my laptop has acquired the IP address that it will use throughout the session (e.g. from the wi-fi router you attach it to). I’m not sure if this precaution is needed.

Why’s it called “Socraticqs”?

The full name is the “Socraticqs In-Class Question System”, Socraticqs for short. Pronounce it like “socratics” (the Q is silent!). This was the best compromise I could think of between several desires:

  • I wanted to tip the hat to the Socratic Method, the one method for “teaching with questions” that people have heard of.
  • I wanted to call this an “In-Class Question System” to distinguish exactly what it’s for (and to differentiate it from existing packages like Moodle).
  • I didn’t want this to sound like a package for Greek, Classics or philosophy.
  • I wanted the name to obviously be computer software, but baulked at ugly acronyms like “SocratICQS”.
  • I figured people will ignore the Q and pronounce Socraticqs just like “socratics”; I wanted the name to be easy to pronounce and to sound like a regular word.